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Formula for Toxicological Pattern of Biocides

97-103Full Text

Esam Eldin Bashir Mohamed Kabbashi

Abstract
Abstract: A formula, LDx+10 – LDx/ LDx – LDx-10, was derived to determine the toxicological pattern of some insecticides against selected insects. Analyses of the results of five studies using this formula showed that an insecticide such as amitraz had the same pattern against two different insects viz. the cotton flea beetle [Podagrica puncticollis Wiese (Coleoptera: Halticidae)] and the Egyptian bollworm [Earias insulana (Boisduval, 1833)] (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Results revealed that several insecticides such as fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos – methyl, primiphos – methyl, and malathion against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and primicarb (Pirimor®), chlorpyrifos (Dursban®), methomyl (Ekatin®), and amitraz (Mitac®) against Cheilomenes propinqua vicina (Mulsant) gave closely similar series of ratios. Conclusions of the study include: I. The ratio LDx+10 – LDx/ LDx – LDx-10 was almost greater when x = 20 than when x = 30, II. The ratio was, generally, increased as the value of x increased, III. The ratio was a unity when approximated to the round figure at x = 20, 30 and 40, IV. The ratio was, generally, ≥ 1.5 at x ≥ 50, V. the highest ratio was, always, at x = 80. This research opens the doors towards determining the toxicity pattern of chemicals (pesticides, antibiotics, herbal medicines, vitamins, etc….) and their dose rate intervals. This may assist in finding the toxicity nature of such chemicals which may compliment the picture of toxicological studies. The ratio derived from this study could be utilized in the anticipation, forecast and / or punctuation of results of similar tests. Keywords: Formula, lethal dose, insecticide, insect, susceptibility, and toxicity pattern.

Performance of BG1 and BGII cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) hybrids under different levels and methods of nitrogen fertilization

104-109Full Text

P.N.PATIL, B.GANGAIAH* and B.G. SHIVAKUMAR

Abstract
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted on cotton during 2008 in factorial RBD with common control with treatments replicated thrice. The impact fourteen treatments formed by combination of three levels of nitrogen fertilization (60, 120 and 180 kg/ha) applied by two methods (broadcast and spot application) on two Bt cotton hybrids (RCH134 BGI (American boll worm resistant) and MRC7031 BGII (American boll worm and tobacco caterpillar resistant) along with absolute control (no N) for each Bt hybrid were assessed. The results revealed that there is no additional advantage with use of Bollgard (BG) II cotton hybrid over BGI hybrid in the absence of tobacco caterpillar incidence and on the contrary, BGI produced significantly higher seed cotton yield (SCY) and net returns (NR). Cotton has shown linear response to nitrogen fertilization and responded to the highest level (180 kg/ha) both in terms of SCY and NR, however, N use efficacy was highest at lowest level of N application (60 kg/ha). Spot applied N resulted in significantly higher NR and N use efficiency. Keywords: Bt Cotton, Economics, Nitrogen, N Use Efficiency, Seed Cotton Yield.

Organic Farming: Status, Challenges and Barriers – An Iranian Perspective

110-118Full Text

Ali Asadollahpour*, Amirhossein Pirmoradi and Samire Sey Mohammadi

Abstract
Abstract: Organic Farming is being promoted in Iran to address environmental problems resulting from the use of chemical materials in agriculture. Despite many advantages of organic agriculture, the results of several case studies show that its adoption rate is still very low among farmers. This paper attempts to bring together different issues in the light of recent developments in organic Farming. Organic Farming has a potential to fulfill the food requirement of the world with sustainable resource utilization. This paper has reviewed the global and Iranian scenario with reference to organic farming. The purpose of this paper is to review previous studies that investigated Status, the main factors influencing and challenging the adoption of organic agriculture. The results show that Iranian farmers have strong motives for the adoption, yet face challenges in certifying, marketing, and accessing reliable technical information and credits. In Iran, the cultivated land under certification is 7‘256 ha only. The key issues emerging in Organic Farming include yield reduction in conversion to organic farm, soil fertility enhancement, integration of livestock, certification constraints, ecology, marketing and policy support. It has been argued that Organic Farming is productive and sustainable, but there is a need for strong support to it in the form of subsidies, agricultural extension services and research. Keywords: Organic Farming, Challenges, Iranian Perspective.

Simulating the rice yield change in Thailand under SRES A2 and B2 scenarios with the EPIC model

119-125Full Text

Nathsuda Pumijumnong, Noppol Arunrat*

Abstract
Abstract: Climate change has an impact upon Thailand’s agriculture production system in terms of its threat to life, utilization of resources as well as food insecurity. Rice is an important crop for Thailand and is a vital contributor to the reduction of hunger and poverty. This study will be conducted to evaluate the impact of climate change on rice yields in Thailand, from the year 2007 to 2017, using the IPCC special report on emission scenario (SRES) A2 and the B2 scenario as an input to the i-EPIC model version 0509. Initial results indicate that the production of irrigated rice still remains higher than rain-fed rice. This is due to the fact that the rain-fed rice production results depend on the variations of rainfall within given areas. The increases of CO2 and variations of rainfall will have an effect on the growth and production of rice. The study reveals that rice yield under the A2 scenario will be higher than that of the B2 scenario in both irrigated and rain-fed areas. The northeastern of Thailand, in particular Mukdahan, Sakhon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin and Amnat Charoen provinces, respectively, will be severely affected by this occurrence, causing the projected production to decrease by 50-90 %. However, the eastern and southern areas of Thailand will have a positive potential due to a likely increase in the amount of rainfall in these areas. This could increase the production by 30-50 % depending on location. Other factors impacting rice production variability is largely due to variation in soil, climate conditions and the varieties of rice grown. The climate change issue can be countered by adaptation and modifications to the farming of rice. This includes reducing the variability of rice production through efforts such as improving water storage and irrigation systems, selecting rice varieties for specific areas of growth, and using planting dates specific to areas of growth. Keywords: Climate change, rice yield, EPIC0509, i-EPIC model, Thailand.

Body Composition of Feather Back Notopterus notopterus and Rita rita from Balloki Headworks-Pakistan

126-129Full Text

Farzana Abbas, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman*, Muhammad Ashraf and Khalid Javed Iqbal

Abstract
Abstract: In the present study body composition of Notopterus notopterus and Rita rita having average body weight of 75.0 ± 7.1 gm & 59 ± 15.1 gm and length 21.7 ± 0.8 cm & 17.1 ± 1.5 were determined respectively. Thirty fish samples were collected from Blloki Headworks and were analyzed according to the AOAC methods (1995). Proximate analyses were carried out on NIR. Statistical analysis showed that Rita rita had significantly different values of protein, moisture, dry matter, fat content and fiber. However, ash and phosphorus had not significant difference between the test species. In N. Notopterus and Rita rita, condition factor i.e. K values ranged between 0.68-0.83 and 1.15- 1.14, respectively. Keywords: Notopterus notopterus, Rita rita, Headworks, Body Composition.