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Seasonal activity, host plant susceptibility and carryover of mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) in Pakistan

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Muhammad Rafiq Shahid*, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anjum suhail, Muhammad Aslam Khan and Amjad Ali

Abstract
Abstract: Cotton crop is vulnerable to the attack of insect pest especially Phenacoccus solenopsis. Current study was aimed to evaluate the seasonal population, plant susceptibility and carry over of P. solenopsis on 18 plant species. Results revealed that mealy bug remains active through out the year on various plant species. Its activity was at the peak during the months of August and September. Population of mealy bug was maximum on Verbenaceae and malvaceae, during the summer but on Euphorbiaceae during winter season. The winter season host plant species and ever green plants served as carry over of P. solenopsis to the summer economic crop (Gossypium hirsutum) of Pakistan. Keywords: cotton mealy bug, invasive alien species, overwintering survival, polyphagous nature.

Tolerance mechanism and mineral contents variability in healthy and Phenacoccus solenopsis infested plant species

75-77Full Text

Muhammad Rafiq Shahid*, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anjum suhail, Muhammad Aslam Khan and Amjad Ali

Abstract
Abstract: Food preference of herbivorous insect pest is highly influenced with plant resistance mechanisms. In order to investigate the tolerance mechanism against cotton mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis, Chinese rose and cotton plants were used. Plants were covered with muslin cloth and were manually rated with 2 levels of mealy bug infestation i.e., zero and 50 CMB/plant. At the end of the season covered parts of plants i.e. healthy and infested plants were collected for biochemical studies under laboratory. The results regarding mineral contents in the leaves of healthy and damaged plants of cotton and Chinese rose revealed significant differences. The nitrogen contents were reduced in mealy bug infested plants up to half as compared with healthy plants ie., cotton plants manually infested with 50 CMB/plant had nitrogen percentage 3.96% but healthy plants with 0% infestation had 7.0% nitrogen. Nitrogen concentration in mealy affected Chinese rose leaves was 2.85% but in healthy leaves it was 4.73% respectively. So nitrogen concentration was high in healthy plant leaves than in mealy bug infested leaves whereas phosphorous and potassium percentage was high in damaged plants as compared with healthy plants. This is due to the tolerance mechanism of resistance plant species against mealy bug. Keywords: biochemical study, cotton mealy bug, mineral contents, damaged/healthy plants.

Growth and Yield Response of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to Microbial and Phosphorus Fertilizers

78-85Full Text

Somaya SirElkhatim Mohamed and Ammar Salama Abdalla

Abstract
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted for two successive seasons (2010-2011) in Abu Usher, Central Sudan, to evaluate the effects of Rhizobium, phosphobacterium and two levels of phosphorus (50 and 100kg triple super phosphate/ha) on the performance of groundnut. Symbiotic properties, yield, shoot N and P content of the groundnut were measured. Results indicated that Rhizobium inoculation significantly (P≤0.05) increased nodulation, nodule dry weight, root and dry weight.Phosphobacterium significantly (P≤0.05) increased nodulation, root and shoot dry weight. The yield and uptake of N and P by groundnut were significantly higher in the treatments receiving both inoculants and phosphorus than individual application of either inoculant or phosphorus. Keywords: Groundnut, Rhizobium, Phosphobacterium, Inoculation, Phosphorus.

Effect of drip irrigation on Phaseolus Bean production under the open field condition of Sudan

86-90Full Text

Shaker B.A*, Saeed A.B and Ahmed Al-Khalifa B.A

Abstract
Abstract: The experiment was carried out to study the effect of drip irrigation on the phaseolus bean production under the open field condition of Sudan. Three levels of irrigation water were used (800 m3/feddan/month) for each of surface irrigation method and drip irrigation system, and again half this quantity for drip irrigation. The highest yield obtained was 522 kg/feddan for drip irrigation system using 400m3/feddan/month. The surface irrigation method with 800m3/feddan/month gave yield of 492 kg/feddan, while the lowest yield of 136kg/feddan was obtained from drip irrigation system when 800 m3/feddan/month . The plant root ratio gave 5.24%, 3.5% and 1.6% for the surface method, the drip irrigation 400m3/feddan/month and drip with 800m3/feddan/month respectively. Seed yield ratio to total dry weight at 62% was obtained from drip irrigation system with 400m3/feddan/month, 50% for surface irrigation method and 48% for drip irrigation system with 800m3/feddan/month. Irrigation water productivity gave 4.5kg/m3 for the drip with 400 m3/feddan/month, 2kg/m3 for the surface irrigation method and 0.6 kg/m3 for the drip with 800m3/feddan/month. Keywords: Drip irrigation system, Surface irrigation method, Irrigation water productivity, Phaseolus bean, feddan=4200m2.

Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on growth, yield and yield components of banana

91-96Full Text

Ahmed Al-Khalifa*, B. Ahmed, Mohamed A. Ali, Ibrahim M. lhsan and Shaker B. Ahmed

Abstract
Abstract: In Sudan, Bananas is the most popular fruits for its nutritive value, low price and availability all year round. Drip irrigation is an efficient system which can save the amount of water needed for irrigation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different water regimes applied by drip irrigation on growth and yield of banana cv. Grand Nain in Gizera State. Five different irrigation regimes were applied according to the crop evaporatranspiration (ETc). These regimes were 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of (ETc) using 2 days irrigation interval. The treatments were replicated 4 times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and 4 plants per plot. The results indicated that the growth parameters increased with the increase in quantity of water applied up to 100% of ETc. Bunch weight, total yield, number of hands per bunch and numbers of fingers per bunch were linearly related to the amount of water applied in the plant crop and first ratoon. The best water regime for yield components was obtained with 100% of ETc. There were no significant differences in bunch weight between 100% and 120% of ETc of mother plant and first ratoon. Therefore, irrigation water productivity was higher with 120% and 100% of (ETc). Keywords: Banana, Grand Nain, Drip irrigation system, Reference evapotranspiration, Crop evapotranspiration, irrigation water productivity.