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Participatory variety selection of Potato (Solanium tuberosum L) in Southern Ethiopia

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Tesfaye Tadesse Tefera

Abstract
Abstract: Potato is the most important food crop in the world after wheat (Triticum aestivum L), rice (Oriza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L). This shows potato can benefit large segments of the population, the producers as well as the consumers. Therefore, participatory potato variety selection was conducted at Sidama Zone, Umbullowacho water shed, Ethiopia. It was planned to test different varieties including local checks. However, due to the lack of planting materials two improved cultivars (Marachere and Dancha) were considered. Yield and other data were collected and computed. Even if the two varieties had shown different performance especially in root yield, farmers selected both of them. Accordingly Marachere was selected for its excellent ground cover, establishment, stem thickness, freedom from foliar and tuber disease, and uniform tuber size. While Dancha for its earliness, delicious taste when eaten after boiling, low fire wood consumption as it requires short time for cooking and uniform tuber size. Keywords: Solanium Tuberosum, Watershed, Zone, earliness.

Seed quality (Zn and Fe concentrations) of wheat varieties

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Sadullah N. Al-NIEMI, Shukri I. REKANI*, Aydin GUNES

Abstract
Abstract: A lab study was conducted to assess the Zn and Fe concentration and contents of different wheat varieties to provide an insight into the quality of the seed for human consumption and it’s resowing for better crop harvest. The zinc, iron, copper and manganese concentrations in the seed of the 9 wheat varieties ranged between 15.917-43.623, 57.542-106.826, 4.529-8.591 and 25.574-44.689 mg.kg-1 dry weight basis respectively. Only Duma from the 9 varieties used fulfill the quality standard set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2006) and had high Zn concentration more than 41 mg.kg-1, whereas this variety was the only one of seed varieties had less than 57 mg Fe Kg-1 and not fulfill the quality standard set by WHO. Therefore, there is low sufficient genetic variability to develop wheat varieties with increased Zn levels in the grain and there is promising genetic variability for Fe. Keywords: seed quality, variety, wheat, micronutrient, human nutrition.

Performance Based Evaluation of Groundnut Genotypes Under Medium Rainfall Conditions of Chakwal

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Madiha Zamurrad, Muhammad Tariq, Fida Hassan Shah, Abid Subhani, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal* and Mehmoona Koukab

Abstract
Abstract: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important summer leguminous crops of the Potohar region. About 90% of the groundnut production is obtained from rainfed region which covers more than 90% of total cultivated area under groundnut cultivation in Punjab. A study was conducted at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal in the years 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the performance of the groundnut genotypes for yield and other characters under rainfed condition. Seven promising/candidate lines of groundnut obtained from National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and BARI, Chakwal were sown in first week of April in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The results revealed that varieties BARI-2011 and PG-1102 produced higher pod yield of 3648 and 3617 kg ha-1, respectively with better yield components. Both these varieties are recommended for commercial cultivation in rainfed areas. Keywords: Groundnut, Evaluation, Medium rainfall, Yield performance.

Performance Based Evaluation of Different Genotypes of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata) Under Rainfed Conditions of Chakwal

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Romana Hanif, Naeem-Ud-Din, Abid Subhani, Ghulum Rabbani, Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal* and Mehmoona Koukab

Abstract
Abstract: Nine mungbean genotypes were evaluated for different quantitative traits at Barani Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal during the year 2009 and 2010 under rainfed conditions. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences for some traits while germination, grains per pod and 100 seed weight remained at par. The data indicated minimum days to maturity (46) for genotype 9CMG 506, while genotype NM-2006 taken maximum days to maturity (57). Highest grain yield (1393kg/ha) was recorded for 9CMG-504. Highest value of heritability was recorded for 100 seed weight (96%) followed by plant height (84%), yield (73%) and days to flowering (67%). Positive and significant correlation was found in most of the traits studied. Keywords: Mungbeans, Variability, Heritability, Correlation, Yield performance.

Hydro-Geomorphologic Impact Assessment and Economic Viability of Smallholders Farms in Muooni Catchment, Machakos District

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Cush L. NGONZO*, Chris A. SHISANYA and Joy A. OBANDO

Abstract
Abstract: Water depletion, sheets, rills, inter-rills and big gullies have an impact on water and land productivity in a catchment area, endangering thus substantial wealth creation in agriculture. An assessment of 66 farms selected randomly at Muooni dam site reveals that they are no longer viable due to soil erosion problems and water over-abstraction by natural ecosystems, eucalyptus particularly. Though farmers are striving to consolidate soil protection using terracing, contouring and runoff cut-outs, soil degradation and water stress are still major challenges they have to face to. Results show that farmers‟ poor education and economic poverty, adverse effects of deforestation and off-site effects of external agents such as El Niño floods and droughts, wind pressure are hampering the rate of soil erosion, mass movements and water stress in the catchment. These processes are likely to enhance sediment loads into the dam reservoir as its water storage capacity decreases by 6.22% each year. They may have increased farming water shortage costs and the cost of fertile soil excess loss, threatening chances of high yields and income in farming. Consequently, they undermine the economic viability of smallholder farms and Muooni dam. To improve their livelihood, farmers need to apply appropriate methods of crops selection and specialization, water saving and farming technologies. The ongoing implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation programmes is to be reinforced in Muooni catchment through policy instruments and direct investments. Keywords: Hydro-Geomorphologic, Smallholders Farms, Machakos.