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Investigating place attachment in residential areas

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Jamal-e-Din Mahdi Nejad* and Fatemeh Matin Shahabi

We all have experienced emotional bonds with some places that could have been positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant; a place that is in relation to our present, past or even future experiences, a place where we desire to live in, where we would like to go or get back. In fact, we confirm not only the existence of such emotional bonds with places but also their significance in the quality of our lives. Environmental psychologists have studied this bond between individuals and place as "place attachment", and they desire to enhance the sense of belonging, security, identity and environmental perception in individuals, in addition to the sense of satisfaction with their residence. The research method was analytical-descriptive, and data was collected through documents, records and field observation. The findings of this research show that the factors affecting place attachment in residential areas in both physical and social dimensions (ordered according to their significance and priority of impact) are physical desirability and climate comfort, facilities and amenities, readability and orientation in the environment, aesthetics values and environmental attractiveness, privacy, personalization and space attachment, place recognition and perception, place's sociability and space activity. Therefore, achieving design criteria to enhance the mentioned factors and deploying them for improving the quality of architectural environments will lead to place attachment in residential areas.

An ergonomic evaluation of clutch pedal in a few models of common cars within taxi service lines in Tehran

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Seyed Reza Aghazadeh*, Mehdi Miri and Hossein Shirmohammadi

Background and Purpose: Clutch pedal is one of the most important controlling systems of car, and as a foot controller, it would cause reduced comfort and fatigue in driver as well as vehicle safety decrease, because of the position and type of function mechanism, in case of inappropriate design. In current research, the clutch pedal comfort is investigated ergonomically in a few models of common cars within taxi service lines in Tehran. Method: in this sectional and applied study, 120 drivers from Tehran taxi lines were selected for study using stratified random sampling and an objective method (push and release force, frequency and duration of clutch pressing) as well as a subjective method, were used to investigate the fatigue and discomfort degree of clutch pressing. in the objective method, the push and release force were recorded using a piezoelectric dynamometer, while the duration of clutch pressing were noted using a micro switch called Data-logger. Results: According to results, there were significant difference in perceived discomfort after a work shift in all parts of the body involved in clutch pressing. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort was reported for lumbar (3.97) and knees (3.86) and the lowest one was for upper thigh muscle (1.45) and upper leg (1.98). Moreover, highest stated discomfort was for drivers of Peykan and Roa. About the force and frequency of clutch pressing, it was observed that the highest value was for Peykan. Conclusion: Results of this research show that Long-term use of clutch pedal in all tested cars, would cause significant discomfort after the work shift. Therefore, it’s suggested to replace cars of taxi lines with automatic transmission types in long-term, and to replace Peykan and Roa cars which have the highest discomfort, with other models, in short-term.