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Removal of Ammonia Gas Emission from Broiler Litter

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Hussein A. Kaoud

Abstract: Microbial mineralization of urea and uric acid in poultry litter results in the production of ammonia, which can lead to decreased poultry performance, malodorous emissions, and loss of poultry litter value as a fertilizer. The experiment was conducted to test the validity of novel amendments to reduce the presence of these ammonia producing microbes and reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses. The experiment was consisted of 4 treatments x 2 replication, each 150 broiler chicks of both sexes per pen (treatment A: 2% Sodium perborate, treatment B: 2% TiO2 Photocatalyst and treatment D: 2% TiO2 + 0.25 % Paraformaldehyd granules). The results revealed that:1) Sodium perborate treatment reduced the total bacterial population by 2 log within 2 wk and ammonia concentrations were 20,15,18,15,20,25,25 and 20 mg/m3 at 7,14,20,25,30,35,40 and 45 days of the cycle period, respectively 2) TiO2 Photocatalyst of the poultry litter resulted in >2 log decreases in total fungal concentrations, and bacterial decreasing by >3 logs within the first 2 to 3 wk of the litter treatment as well as delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (ammonia concentrations were 15 and 25 mg/m3 at,40 and 45 days ,respectively). 3) Ammonia concentrations in TiO2 + Paraformaldehyde granules treated group were significantly (P< 0.05) lower than in the control and other treated groups. Ammonia concentrations were 10 mg m3 up to 35 days and slightly increased to 15 mg/ m3 up to 45 days of the cycle period. Keywords: Gas, Broiler Litter, Emission.

Waste reduction strategy for food security crops

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Amir Hossein Pirmoradi*, Somaye Latifi and Samire Sey Mohammadi

Abstract: Today food security in developing countries faces threat, so the fast increasing of population makes us to provide more food. Thus, in order to increase the produce crops and meet the people’ needs, there are some strategies such as increased acreage, higher yields per unit area, achieving superior numeric, field operations management, including extermination and diseases elimination, irrigation, feeding, pruning, etc. However,. there is a strategy that has been overlooked: the reduction of agricultural waste products. High rate of agricultural waste products is one of the problems which has always been an obstacle to agricultural strategic self-sufficiency and food security in Iran.So that by eliminating or minimizing the agricultural waste products, we can achieve self-sufficiency faster. Food security and.self-sufficiency in crops strategic production in the current world which is considered as a weapon and leverage in the hands of power sources are of the most important factors.however, However, considering food products import process including wheat makes us worry about future’s food security of nearly 70 million people in our country. Therefore, it is clear that reducing waste is directly related to food security which is one of the macro-policies systems of the development plans. This paper, which has been conducted through documentary approach.this p, in order to gain food security through analyzing concepts such as food security, agricultural waste products, the importance of agricultural waste products reduction, seeks to discuss it. And finally presents a strategy to reduce agricultural waste products. Keywords: Food security, Agricultural waste, Waste reduction.

Transformation Concept of Sustainable Architecture for Middle Income House in Indonesia since 1980 TILL 2012

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Putri Suryandari, ST.M.Ars

Abstract: Interested in the issue of Green Architecture concept that applied in Jakarta – Indonesia since 1980s, then I need to know, how far the concept was develop at middle income house since 1980s till 2012. Whether during the past 30 years, the application of “Green Architecture”, “Eco-Architecture” or “Sustainable Architecture has the stronger becomes the basic concept of middle-income housing development group or just do not work out as desired by the idealism that figures to save the environment and building? The fact that in our country socially, knowledge of the community about architectural design development is like there is a missing link. These concepts just stopped in academic, professional, and community groups that close with an Architect. So even though the experts had been put forward Architects environmentally friendly problems in housing, but often people do not or do not even know the progress of the issue. People who build their homes without an architect and that nearly 70% of the total, currently only know that a trend concept post-traditional architecture is Modern and or Minimalist Architecture. These two concepts are very well known and favorite design choice communities throughout Indonesia. This research will analyze the sustainability concept of sustainable residential architecture middle income in Jakarta, the various forms of transformation, adaptation and renovation of house, from its constructions to the present. An observesion area will be taken randomly in the middle class residential community in Indonesia, particulary randomly at Jakarta, Solo, Tangerang and Bali. Pursuant system operational to research, a research type is Descriptive by Survey Method, data research obtained from observation. Pursuant to procedure of research step, method of research is qualitative, with Deductive Empirical method. Deductive Empirical method is knowledge analyzing theory with existing fact, so that can be formulation a new theory. Keywords: Middle income house, sustainable architecture, green architecture.

Evaluation of C–reactive protein and fibrinogen among Sickle cell disease patients

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Nnodim Johnkennedy*, Meludu Samuel C, Dioka CE, Ezeugwunne Prisca Ifeoma, Nwacha Richard and Obi Patrick Chinedu

Abstract: This study was done to determine the levels of C – reactive protein and fibrinogen in sickle cell disease patients. Material and method: 100 sickle cell patients in steady state ages 5 to 30 years attending General Hospital Owerri were used in the study while 100 normal subjects(HbAA) and 100 HbAS were used as control.Results: The results obtained showed that the level of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated in sickle cell disease when compared with the controls at P Keywords: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, sickle cell disease.