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Evaluations of some extracted natural oils against Bruchidius incarnates and Ephestia elutella

1-7Full Text

Sabbour, M. M

Abstract: The repellency test of three extracted oils Jatropha curcas, canola and Jojoba Seed oils, were studied against two lepidopterous insect pests Ephestia elutella and Bruchidius incarnates. Results showed that, the tested oils, are promising for controlling the target stored product pests. Results also, showed that Jatropha curcas oil acted not only as oviposition deterrents but also adversely influence fecundity. Moths oviposited eggs on treated seeds with Jatropha oil but the numbers of eggs is always lower in treated seeds than in the control. The tested oils were significantly decreased the seeds infestations. The means number of eggs deposited/female were significantly decreased to 39.4±1.7, 34.4±1.7and 32.3±3.7egg/female after E. elutella treated with Jojoba Seed oil at concentrations 5, 2 and 3%, respectively. Jatropha curcasoils were gave the higher mortality of B.incarnateswhen treated at the corresponding concentrations. Accumulative mortality (%) of E. elutella and B.incarnates larvae increased gradually by increasing the period of exposure in case of treated foam with different tested oils. After seven days of treatments, the Jojoba Seed oil, Jatropha curcas and canola oil the accumulative mortality B.incarnatesrecorded 71.5, 73.4 and 40.1 , respectively as compared to 33.1 in the control. Keywords: Ephestia cutella and Bruchidius incarnatesJatropha curcas, canola and Jojoba oil.

Efficacy of silver nanoparticles and activated electro-chemical water as poultry disinfectants against Salmonella entriditis

8-13Full Text

Hussein A. Kaoud* and Salah Yosseif

Abstract: Salmonellae are commonly found in the environment and there are many instances throughout the grow-out phase in which birds can come into contact with Salmonella and other pathogens. Laboratory trial and other two separate field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of various disinfectants on the isolated Salmonella entriditis when applied to poultry house floors, as well as an innovative trial also, carried out to evaluate the efficacy of same disinfectants when they contained Ag nanoparticles. The results revealed that (1) The following disinfectants without Ag nanoparticles: white wash, phenuique, formalin, iodophors and Envirolyte-Anolyte (1/1000) for disinfection of floor plots significantly impacted Salmonella populations (P < 0.05) (2 ;3 ; 3 ; 3 ; 5 log10 reduction, respectively) but unfortunately, failed to kill all the populations. While, Envirolyte-Anolyte (1/500) significantly reduced the population of S. entenidis with a complete reduction of the population. (2) White wash and iodophores containing Ag nanoparticles showed highly significant (P<0.05) reduction of Salmonella populations in floor after disinfection process (5; 4 log10 reduction, respectively). Interestingly, Salmonella populations completely destroyed when exposed to phenuique and formalin containing Ag nanoparticles in field trial. This may be due to the ubiquitous nature of Ag nanoparticles, which are able to enhance the disinfectant power. Keywords: Salmonella, Ag nanoparticles, Envirolyte-Anolyte, Disinfectants.

Impact of Salinity on Seed Germination in Tephrosia purpurea L.

14-18Full Text

Kumari Sunita, Malvika Srivastava, R.K. Chaturvedi* and Parveen Abbasi

Abstract: This study was done to investigate the effect of different level of NaCl concentration on the germination of Tephrosia purpurea L. seed. Different concentration of NaCl (50,100,200 and 300 mM) and distilled water (control) was experimented on the seed of this wild leguminous plant. The experiment showed that the mean germination time (MGT), germination index (GI), coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), germination percentage (GP), and seed vigor index (SVI) varied from 1.7 to 3.5 days, 1.91 to 1.00, 0.28 to1.08, 60 to 80% and 0.40 to 4.06, respectively. There was no germination at 300 mM. Significant differences were found among NaCl treatments in terms of GI (p < 0.05), GP (p < 0.01), and SVI (p < 0.01). The plant showed positive response under treatment of 50mM NaCl concentration but beyond that it showed negative response in all examined parameters, except MGT. Maximum value of GI, GP, CVG, and SVI were observed at 50mM concentration and minimum at 200mM NaCl concentration. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between all parameters were calculated and we observed that MGT, GI, GP, CVG, and SVI were significantly related with each other. Keywords: Wild legume, Salinity stress, Sodium chloride, Seed germination, Pearson’s correlation.

Study of Gender Difference in Career Maturity of Rural and Urban Students in India

19-25Full Text

Md. Mahmood Alam

Abstract: Career maturity is reflected by an individual‟s mature behavior in coping with the tasks of career development, compared with that of others dealing with the same tasks (Super & Bohn, 1970). It is generally accepted as comprising both cognitive and affective components. The cognitive component is consisted of decision-making skills; the affective component includes attitudes toward the career decision-making process. This study examined the gender difference in career maturity of rural and urban students. Sample consisted of 640 10th class students [320 Boys: 160 rural (80 Muslim and 80 non-Muslim) & 160 urban (80 Muslim and 80 non-Muslim) and 320 Girls: 160 rural (80 Muslim and 80 non-Muslim) & 160 urban (80 Muslim and 80 non-Muslim)] selected from government high schools of Darbhanga City. Tool for collecting the data included Crites‟ Career Maturity Inventory. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive and inferential statistics to study the gender difference between students (boys & girls; rural & urban and Muslim & Non-Muslim) on the measure of career maturity. The findings of the study revealed that hypotheses H1, H2, H3, H7 and H9 are fully accepted while hypotheses H4, H5, H6 and H8 are partially accepted. The present findings suggest that research needs to be complemented by examining differences in the between-group experiences that families from various social status and locale are able to provide for their children. That is, what are the experiences and conditions that families from certain groups provide that allow their children‟s aspirations to be expanded into higher vocational and career attainment. Keywords: Gender, Sex, Vocation, Career maturity.

Auxin production by Azospirillum: Role in growth promotion of Triticum aestivum L. and Lens culinaris Medik

26-32Full Text

AminaYaqoob, Nisma Farooq, Imran Sajid and Basharat Ali*

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Azospirillum as a crop inoculant to enhance the growth of Triticum aestivum L. and Lens culinaris Medik. under axenic conditions. Azospirillum was isolated from the rhizosphere of different grasses by using selective and differential medium Congo red agar (CRA). Bacterial auxin production was quantified using colorimetric technique and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Bacterial strain G2 produced the maximum auxin concentration of 47 and 142 μg ml-1 in the absence and presence of L-tryptophan, respectively. Phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum on T. aestivum and L. culinaris was evaluated under axenic conditions. Inoculations of T. aestivum with G5 improved the fresh weight (30%) and shoot length (31%) over control. However, when soil was amended with L-tryptophan (1000 μg g-I of soil), maximum increase was recorded for dry weight (116%) and number of roots (50%) respectively for strains G2 and G3. In the case of L. culinaris, strain G1 showed maximum increases in shoot length (16%), fresh weight (57%), dry weight (78%), number of leaves (75%) and number of roots (33%). On the other hand, in L-tryptophan amended soil, G3 strain significantly improved the shoot length and number of roots up to 8% and 33%, respectively. Results of this study indicated that auxin production potential of Azospirillum can be used to enhance the growth of agronomic crops. Keywords: Azospirillum, Bacterial auxin, Biofertilizers, Lens culinaris, Rhizobacteria, Triticum aestivum.